Face Milling - Milling a large flat surface with a milling cutter that operates in a plane that is at right angles to its axis.
Failure - The event, or inoperable state, in which any item or part of an item does not, or would not, perform as previously
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis - A procedure by which each potential failure mode of a system is analyzed to determine
the effects on the system and classify each potential failure mode according to its severity.
Fans - There are several simple relationships between fan capacity, pressure, speed, and power, which are referred to as
the fan laws.
Fast Fourier Transform - An algorithm, or digital calculation routine, that efficiently calculates the discrete Fourier transform
from the sampled time waveform.
Fatigue - An important mode of failure of engineering components subjected to dynamic stresses.
Fatigue Limit - In fatigue testing, the number of cycles which may be withstood without failure at a particular level of stress.
Fatigue Resistance - The ability of a material to withstand repeated and varying loads.
Faying Surface - That surface of a member that is in contact with another member to which it is joined.
FEED - Front End Engineering and Design
Feedstock - Stock from which material is taken to be fed into a processing unit.
Feeler Gauges - A set of steel fingers of different thicknesses that can be used to set the gap between two objects.
Feet per Second Squared - Old imperial unit of acceleration.
FEM - Finite element method is a numerical method which is used to calculate displacements or stresses in structures or
components subjected to external and internal loads.
Ferrite - Body-centered cubic iron; also iron and steel alloys that have the BCC crystal structure
Ferrous Alloy - A metal alloy for which iron is the prime constituent
FFT - An abbreviation of Fast Fourier Transform, an algorithm, or digital calculation routine, that efficiently calculates the
discrete Fourier transform from the sampled time waveform.
File Hardness - Hardness as determined by the use of a file.
Filler - An inert foreign substance added to a matrix to improve or modify its properties.
Fillet - A curved surface connecting two surfaces that form an angle.
Film Brazing - A process in which bonding is produced by heating with a molten nonferrous filler metal poured over the joint
until the brazing temperature is attained.
Finishing Hammer - A pounding device used for detail work in shaping a panel after it has been brought approximately into
the right shape.
Finite Element Method - A numerical method which is used to calculate displacements or stresses in structures or
components subjected to external and internal loads.
Firing - A high-temperature heat treatment that increases the density and strength of a ceramic piece.
Firing Order - The order in which combustion is initiated in an internal combustion engine.
Firmware - The combination of hardware device and computer instructions and/or computer data that resides as read-only
software on the hardware device.
First Class Lever - The fulcrum is situated between the load and the applied force.
Fit - The desired positive or negative clearance between the surfaces of two machined parts.
Fixed Connection - In two dimensions, a fixed connection between two members restrains all three degrees of freedom of
the connected member with respect to one another.
Flame Annealing - Annealing in which the heat is applied directly by a flame.
Flame Engine - The working principle is similar to the hot air engine, except that this engine draws hot air into the cylinder.
Flame Hardening - Quench hardening in which the heat is applied directly by a flame.
Flange - A relatively thin rim around a part.
Flare Nut Spanner - A spanner which looks almost like an open ended spanner except the end curls around the nut further.
Flash Point - The lowest temperature at which sufficient vapor is produced to cause combustion if an ignition source is
Flashing - A thin edge of material formed at the parting line of a casting or forging where it is forced out between the edges
of the form or die.
Flexural Strength - A property of a solid that indicates its ability to withstand bending.
Flexure Mode - Flexure modes are associated with thin slender beams.
Flow Rate - Volume per unit of time.
Fluid Film Bearing - A bearing which supports the shaft on a thin film of oil.
Fluidization - The suspension of particles by sufficient upward velocity of the fluid. During fluidization the gravity force is
overcome by a combination of buoyancy and fluid friction.
Flute - The groove in a cutting tool which provides a cutting edge and a space for the chips to escape and permits the cutting
fluids to reach the cutting edges.
Fly Cutter - A single-point cutter mounted on a bar in a fly cutter holder or a fly cutter arbour used for special applications for
which a milling cutter is not available.
Flywheel - The wheel on the end of the crankshaft that gives the crankshaft momentum to carry the pistons through the
FMEA - A procedure by which each potential failure mode of a system is analyzed to determine the effects on the system and
classify each potential failure mode according to its severity.
Foot Brake - Vehicle brake applied with the foot.
Foot Pound - Imperial unit of mechanical energy.
Force Fit - A fitting which one part is forced of pressed into another to form a single unit.
Forge Welding - A group of welding processes in which fusion is produced by heating in a forge or furnace and applying
pressure or blows.
Forging - Mechanical forming of a metal or alloy by heating and hammering.
Formed Cutters - Milling cutters which will produce shaped surfaces with a single cut.
Foundation Stiffness - A term used to refer to the stiffness of a machine support or the region of contact between a structure
and its surroundings.
Four-Stroke Engine - An engine operating on a cycle which is completed in four strokes, or two revolutions of the crankshaft.
Fractionating Column - Process unit that separates various fractions of petroleum by simple distillation with the column
tapped at various levels to separate and remove fractions according to their boiling ranges.
Fracture Testing - Breaking a specimen and examining the fractured surface with the unaided eye or with a low-power
microscope to determine such things as composition, grain size, case depth, soundness, or presence of defects.
Fracture Toughness - Critical value of the stress intensity factor for which crack extensions occurs.
Free Bend Test - A method of testing weld specimens without the use of a guide.
Free Cut - An additional cut with a machine tool with no advancement of depth.
Free Ferrite - Ferrite that is structurally separate and distinct.
Free Fit - A class of fit intended for use where accuracy is not essential or where large temperature variations are likely to be
encountered, or both conditions.
Free-Layer Damper - A treatment to control the vibration of a structural by bonding a layer of damping material to the
Friction - The resistance to motion which is called into play when it is attempted to slide one surface over another, with which
it is in contact.
Friction Clutch - A shaft coupling used where it is necessary to provide a connection that can be readily engaged or
disengaged while one of the shafts is in motion.
Froude Number - A dimensionless number used in the study of fluid flow problems with models.
ft3/s - Cubic foot per second.
ft/ s^2 - Abbreviation of Feet per Second Squared, an old imperial unit of acceleration.
Fuel Cell - A device that converts the chemical energy obtained from a redox reaction directly into electrical energy.
Fuel Consumption - Definitions of fuel consumption calculations.
Fulcrum - The support on which a lever turns.
Fullering - The process of hammering grooves in hot iron to spread it out thinner.
Funicular - A funicular shape is one similar to that taken by a suspended chain or string subjected to a particular loading.
Furnace Brazing - A process in which bonding is produced by the furnace heat and a nonferrous filler metal having a melting
point above 427°C.
Fusion - The combining of light nuclei to form a heavier nucleus. Also, the complete mixing of two materials along an edge.
Engineering Glossary, Engineering Dictionary F
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