V10 Engine - Ten-cylinder engine with the cylinders arranged in two banks of 5 and the shape of a V when looking along the
line of the crankshaft.

V16 Engine - Sixteen-cylinder engine with the cylinders arranged in two banks of 8 and the shape of a V when looking along
the line of the crankshaft.

V4 Engine - Four-cylinder engine with the cylinders arranged in two banks of 2 and the shape of a V when looking along the
line of the crankshaft.

V6 Engine - Six-cylinder engine with the cylinders arranged in two banks of 3 and the shape of a V when looking along the
line of the crankshaft.

V8 Engine - Eight-cylinder engine with the cylinders arranged in two banks of 4 and the shape of a V when looking along the
line of the crankshaft.

Vacancy - An unfilled lattice site in a crystal structure.

Vacuum - Pressure less than atmospheric pressure

Vacuum Engine - The working principle is similar to the hot air engine, except that this engine draws hot air into the cylinder.

Valence - The charge on an ion based on the number of electrons transferred or shared within a specific structure.

Valve Float - A high-rpm engine condition in which the valve lifters lose contact with the cam lobes because the valve springs
are not strong enough to overcome the momentum of the various valvetrain components.

Valve Lifter - The cylindrically shaped component that presses against the lobe of a camshaft and moves up and down as the
cam lobe rotates.

Valve Seat - That part of the valve mechanism upon which the valve face rests to close the port.

Valve Spring - The spring which is used to close a valve.

Valves - Signifies the total intake and exhaust valves in an internal combustion engine.

Valve-Spring Retainer - Holds the valve spring in a state of compression.

Valvetrain - The collection of parts that make the valves operate in an internal combustion engine.

Vapor Pressure - The force per unit area exerted by a vapor in an equilibrium state with its pure solid, liquid, or solution at a
given temperature.

Vee Engine - One with two banks of in-line cylinders mounted with an angular separation on a common crankcase.

Vehicle Noise - The noise produced by a land based vehicle that is radiated to the surrounding environment (exterior noise)
or that is observed by the occupants of the vehicle (interior noise).

Velocity Head - The difference between dynamic pressure and static pressure.

Velocity Pressure - The difference between dynamic pressure and static pressure.

Velocity Transducer - An electrical/mechanical transducer whose output is directly proportional to the velocity of the
measured unit.

Vena Contracta - Point where the flow becomes parallel.

V Engine - One with two banks of in-line cylinders mounted with an angular separation on a common crankcase.

Ventilation - The controlled exchange of air.

Venturi - A short constriction in a tube between two longer tapered portions that are usually of unequal length but terminate
with the same diameter.

Vernier - An auxiliary scale, invented by Pierre Vernier, which enables the reading of the smallest divisions of a graduated
scale.

Vernier Caliper - The vernier caliper provides the three basic functions of inner, outer and depth gauge.

Vernier Engine - A small rocket engine that is used for fine adjustment.

VFD -- Variable frequency drive

VGA - Variable-gain amplifier

Vicker′s Hardness - Determined by indenting the material with a diamond pyramid under a specific load and then measuring
the size of the impression.

Virgin Metal - Primary metal obtained directly from ores rather than recycled scrap.

Viscoelasticity - A type of deformation exhibiting the mechanical characteristics of viscous flow and elastic deformation.

Viscosity - A measure of the internal friction within a fluid.

Viscous Flow - The flow of fluid through a duct under conditions such that the mean free path is very small in comparison with
the smallest dimension of a transverse section of the duct.

Viscous Fluid - A fluid whose molecular viscosity is sufficiently large to make the viscous forces a significant part of the total
force field in the fluid.

Viscous Force - The force per unit volume or per unit mass arising from the action of tangential stresses in a moving viscous
fluid.

Viscous Stresses - The components of the stress tensor when the pressure, i.e., the mean of the three normal stresses, has
been subtracted out from each of the normal stresses.

Vitreous Enamel - An opaque or transparent glaze, generally coloured, which adheres to a suitable metallic surface when
applied in a liquid state.

Vitrification - Point at which a system becomes a glassy solid, and its molecules become immobilized

VLSI - Very large-scale integration, refers to an IC or technology with many devices on one chip

VoIP - Voice over Internet Protocol, method for transmission of voice calls over the Internet

Volatile - Any substance that evaporates readily

Volatilization - The process of transfer of a chemical from the aqueous or liquid phase to the gas phase.

Volt - Unit of measure for electromotive force, the electrical potential between two points

Voltage Regulator - A circuit which is connected between the power source and a load, which provides a constant voltage
despite variations in input voltage or output load.

Volumetric Efficiency - Ratio of the volume discharged from a pump to the piston displacement of the pump.

Volute - A stationary, spirally shaped passage that converts velocity head to pressure

Vortex - Any flow possessing vorticity.
Engineering Glossary, Engineering Dictionary V
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